Although E. canis and Ehrlichia ruminantium are endemic in Africa, the Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon felis in cats from Luanda, An. Rifampin is active against Ehrlichia in vitro and may represent a safe E. canis and E. chaffeensis were grown in a DH82 canine malignant .. Evaluation of antibiotic susceptibilities of three rickettsial species including Rickettsia felis by a . than infection with the better-known Ehrlichia canis. Although these .. treatment of Cytauxzoon felis infection and immunotherapy for feline asthma. Edward B.
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Clinical signs are usually reported soon after tick infestation. They are mostly non-specific and consist of fever, anorexia, lethargy. Joint pain may occur. Antibodies to rickettsial infections can be detected by immunofluorescence IF test and ELISA, but cross-reactions exist between organisms of the same genus. Blood PCR analysis is a sensitive and specific method felia confirming diagnosis at the onset of acute clinical signs before starting therapy when antibody testing is usually still negative.
Regular application of appropriate ectoparasiticide spot on or collars protects cats from infection. They generally have a wide host specificity, considering that many mammalian species can be infected.
They give rise rt cytoplasmic inclusion bodies: It infects ehrlichioosis and a wide range of animal species worldwide, especially in the Northern hemisphere.
Wild small mammals are the natural reservoirs. Presence of Anaplasma spp morulae arrows in neutrophils. Reprinted with permission from Adaszek et al. Recently a novel, unclassified A. This strain, despite its tropism for platelets, is closely related to others identified in ruminants Zobba et al. This disease was described in tropical and temperate areas worldwide, with the exception of Australia.
Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia infections |
This emerging tick-borne agent has been found mainly in immunocompromised patients, in ticks and rodents and recently also in two dogs Diniz et al. The infection may be underdiagnosed because diagnostic assays are not yet widely available. However, recent molecular studies have increasingly focused on other rickettsial species that may be involved in human clinical disease manifestations. Rickettsia massiliae for example is now recognised as the most widely distributed Rickettsia species that affects humans, being found worldwide Brouqui et al.
Less information is available about the effect of these agents in cats. Just as ey humans and dogs, co-infections with multiple vector-borne pathogens telis in cats; the consequences of such mixed infections are unknown Maia et al.
In Europe, two tick species are mainly involved: Both species are found also on cats Jameson and Medlock, ; Claerebout et al. Similar rates were found in healthy cats as compared to those showing clinical signs.
Little information is available on the pathogenesis of these agents in cats. However, mild reduction in total leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, remarkable reduction in PCV values, and transient increase of ALT and AST values were detected Foley et al.
In fact, a transient lymphopenia was the only abnormality detected during 13 weeks of observation after tick infestation, concerning general appearance, appetite, body temperature and cell blood count of the experimental cats Lappin et al. In naturally exposed cats, clinical signs of feline granulocytotropic anaplasmosis are usually reported soon after tick infestation. They are mostly non-specific and consist of fever, anorexia, lethargy and dehydration.
The clinical course is usually short and not severe and abnormalities resolve quickly, particularly when ehrlichosis treatment is given. In the cat with multiple myeloma, immunosuppression due to a severe monoclonal gammopathy could have been responsible for increased susceptibility to the co-infections.
The natural disease has been confirmed by molecular testing only in a few cases and mainly manifests as non-specific signs such as fever, anorexia and lethargy, but more rarely ejrlichiosis, joint pain, pale mucous membranes, lymph node and feljs enlargement, and haemorrhagic diathesis petechiae, vitreous haemorrhage have also been reported Lappin and Breitschwerdt, Haematology can reveal non-regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia and increased or decreased white cell counts Lappin and Breitschwerdt, Bone marrow hypoplasia is found in cats with pancytopenia or anaemia and thrombocytopenia on haematology Ehlrichiosis et al.
The most consistent biochemical abnormality seen with feline monocytotropic ehrlichiosis was hyperproteinaemia and polyclonal or monoclonal gammopathy, which is also typical of the chronic course of canine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis Lappin and Breidtschwerdt, Ebrlichiosis antibodies were found in some cats and neutrophilic polyarthritis was diagnosed in a cat with joint signs Breitschwerdt et al. The main indication for diagnostic investigations for Rickettsial diseases is a febrile syndrome affecting cats exposed to ticks in endemic areas, especially stray or outdoor pet cats not protected by the regular use of appropriate ectoparasiticides.
In general, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies are more frequently found in granulocytotropic anaplasmosis than in monocytotropic ehrlichiosis. In experimentally infected cats they appear days p. Blood PCR analysis is a sensitive and specific method for confirming diagnosis at the onset of acute clinical signs when antibody testing is usually still negative Foley et al.
However, a recent study demonstrated that some genus-specific PCRs also detect Pseudomonas sequences and may lead to false positive results that may only be recognized after sequencing analysis Hofmann-Lehmann et al. Alternatively, the use of species-specific real-time TaqMan assays may be faster and more sensitive options for the molecular detection of rickettsaemia. Samples for microscopic detection or PCR should be collected prior to the initiation of antibiotic treatment.
Doxycycline is the first choice antibiotic for treating rickettsial infections. Clinical improvement is seen in the first hours unless co-infections not susceptible to doxycycline are present such as protozoal vector-borne agents, or if other complications develop such as severe bleeding. Animals generally respond well to treatment but may remain persistently infected.
In cases testing negative by microscopy, PCR or antibody test, or if results are not yet available, but where there is a strong clinical suspicion of rickettsial infections, treatment should be initiated to prevent the potential of rapid progression of clinical disease.
Ehrlichiosis – Wikipedia
As vectors are the main routes of transmission of rickettsial infections, regular application of appropriate ectoparasiticide spot on or collars may protect cats from becoming infected, as it is well recognised in dogs.
In endemic areas, blood donors should be tested for rickettsial fslis infections to confirm they are negative before being used as donors Pennisi et al.
Rickettsial pathogens are transmitted to humans by competent vectors. Regular application of ectoparasiticides to pets reduces the ehrlichilsis of exposure of humans to vectors of rickettsial agents. Assessment of feline ehrlichiosis in central Spain using serology and a polymerase chain reaction technique.
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Tick surveillance in Great Britain. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. Infectious diseases of the dog and cat. Elsevier, St Louis, Missouri, p. Lappin MR, Hawley J Bacterial and protozoal agents of cains vector-borne diseases in domestic and stray cats from southern Portugal. Blood transfusion in cats. ABCD guidelines for minimising risks of infectious iatrogenic complications. Ticks and associated pathogens collected from cats in Sicily and Calabria Italy.
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The role of cats in the eco-epidemiology of spotted fever group diseases. Serological and molecular evidence of exposure to arthropod-borne organisms in cats from northeastern Spain. Molecular study on selected vector-borne infections in urban stray colony ehrlicihosis in northern Italy. Feline vector-borne pathogens in the north and centre of Portugal.
Cell tropism and molecular epidemiology of Anaplasma platys -like strains in cats.