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El Lenguaje Unificado de Modelado (Spanish Edition) [Grady Booch] on Amazon .com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Rare book. El Lenguaje Unificado de Modelado, 2/ed [BOOCH] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Rare book. El lenguaje unificado de modelado 2/e by Grady Booch ; James Rumbaugh ; Ivar Jacobson. and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available.
The Unified Modeling Language UML is a general-purpose, developmental, modeling language in the field of software engineeringthat is intended to provide a standard way to visualize the design of a system. The creation of UML was originally motivated by the desire to standardize the disparate notational systems and approaches to software design.
It was developed by Grady BoochIvar Jacobson and James Rumbaugh at Rational Software in —, with further development led by them through UML has been evolving since the second half of moxelado s and has its roots in the object-oriented programming methods developed in the late s and early s.
The timeline see image shows the highlights of the history of object-oriented modeling methods and notation. It is originally based on the notations of the Booch methodthe object-modeling technique OMT and object-oriented software engineering OOSEwhich it has integrated into a single language. Rational Software Corporation hired James Rumbaugh from General Electric in and after that the company became the source for two of the most uhificado object-oriented modeling approaches of the day: They were soon assisted in their efforts by Ivar Jacobsonthe creator of the object-oriented booch engineering OOSE method, who joined them at Rational in During the same month the UML Partners formed a group, designed to define the exact meaning of language constructs, chaired by Cris Kobryn and administered by Ed Eykholt, to finalize the specification and integrate it with other standardization efforts.
The result of this work, UML 1. After the first release a task force was formed  to improve the language, which released several minor revisions, 1. The standards it produced as well as the original standard have been noted as being ambiguous and inconsistent. Recent researchers Feinerer,  Dullea et al.
Hartmann  investigates this situation and shows how and why different transformations fail. The current versions of these standards are :. It continues to be updated and improved by the revision task force, who resolve any issues with the language.
UML offers a way to visualize a system’s architectural blueprints in a diagram, including elements such as: Although originally intended for object-oriented design documentation, UML has been extended to a larger set of design documentation as listed above and been found useful in many contexts. UML is not a development method by itself;  however, it was designed to be compatible with the leading object-oriented software development methods of its time, for example OMTBooch methodObjectory and especially RUP that it was originally intended to be used with when work began at Rational Software.
It is important to distinguish between the UML model and the set of diagrams of a system. A diagram is a partial graphic representation of a system’s model. The set of diagrams need not completely cover the model and deleting a diagram does not change the model. The model may also contain documentation that drives the model elements and diagrams such as written use cases.
UML diagrams represent two different views of a system model: Use cases are a way of specifying required usages of a system. Typically, they are used to capture the requirements of a system, that is, what a system is supposed to do. UML 2 has many types of diagrams, which are divided into two categories.
These diagrams can be categorized hierarchically as shown in the following class diagram: Structure diagrams emphasize the things that must be present in the system being modeled. Since structure diagrams represent the structure, they are used extensively in documenting the software architecture of software systems.
For example, the component diagram describes how a software system is split up into components and shows the dependencies among these components. Behavior diagrams oboch what must happen in the system being modeled. Since behavior diagrams illustrate the behavior of a system, they are used extensively to describe the functionality of software systems. As an example, the activity diagram describes the business and operational step-by-step activities of the components in a system.
Interaction diagrams, a subset of behavior diagrams, emphasize the flow of control and data among the things in the system being modeled. For example, the sequence diagram shows how objects communicate with each other regarding a sequence of messages. It provides a meta-meta model at the top, called the M3 layer. These M2-models describe elements of the M1-layer, and thus M1-models.
These would be, for example, models written eo UML. The last layer is the M0-layer or data layer.
El Lenguaje Unificado de Modelado
Univicado is used to describe runtime instances of the system. The meta-model can be extended using a mechanism called stereotyping. UML has been marketed for many contexts. It has been treated, at times, as a design silver bulletwhich leads to problems. UML misuse includes overuse designing every part of the system with it, which is unnecessary and assuming that novices can design with it.
It is considered a large language, with many constructs. Some people including Jacobson feel that UML’s size hinders learning and therefore, using it. This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November and incorporated under the “relicensing” terms of the GFDLversion 1. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 9 April Shamkant, Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, third ed. Accessed 9 November The Unified Process for Practitioners: UML for Systems Engineering: Model Driven Engineering Unificadp and Systems.
Do you even modelsdo
Object-oriented programming Object-oriented analysis and design Object-oriented modeling. Association Composition Dependency Generalization or Inheritance. Activity State Machine Use case. Communications Sequence Interaction overview Timing. Computer programming Requirements engineering Software deployment Software design Software maintenance Software testing Systems analysis Formal methods. Data modeling Enterprise architecture Functional specification Modeling language Orthogonality Programming paradigm Software Software archaeology Software architecture Software configuration management Software development methodology Software development process Software quality Software quality assurance Software verification and validation Structured analysis.
Computer science Computer engineering Project management Risk management Systems engineering.
Activity diagram Communication diagram Interaction overview diagram Sequence diagram State diagram Timing diagram Use case diagram. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Unified Modeling Language. Wikiversity has learning resources about UML.
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View and Download Garmin Foretrex quick start manual online. Garmin Foretrex Quick Start. Foretrex GPS pdf manual download. Garmin Foretrex Pdf User Manuals. View online or download Garmin Foretrex Owner’s Manual. Foretrex – read user manual online or download in PDF format. Pages in total :
Information in this manual is subject to change without notice. Garmin reserves the right to change or improve its products and flretrex make changes in the content without obligation to notify any person or organization of such changes. Visit the Garmin Web site www. Thank you for choosing 1001 Garmin Foretrex The Quick Start Guide describes the process of navigating the Main Pages and the Option Menus, along with some basic unit operations to familiarize you with your new Foretrex right out of the box.
Care Information Cleaning the Unit and Wrist Strap The Foretrex is constructed of high quality materials and does not require user maintenance other than cleaning. Clean the unit using a cloth dampened with a mild de- tergent solution and then wipe garnin. Avoid chemical cleaners and solvents that may damage plastic components.
Garmin 101 Owner’s Manual
In addition, the Foretrex boasts a For best perfor- mance, wear the Foretrex like a watch, with the top face of the unit gsrmin towards the sky. A strap extension provides additional length and easily attaches to the existing strap. To remove the wrist strap from the Foretrex Place your Foretrex on a cloth or soft surface to avoid scratching the case. Goretrex Batteries The Foretrex operates on two AAA alkaline batteries not includedwhich are placed in the back of the unit.
Satellite Page Turning on the Foretrex After you have placed the batteries in the Foretrexit is ready for use. Switching Between the Main Pages Adjusting the Backlighting and Contrast If the lighting conditions make it hard for you to see the screen, adjust the contrast or turn on the backlight.
You may also make these adjustments through the Main Menu Page. Foreterx use the backlight: Waypoint names and symbols are also shown on the map. Press when this is highlighted to adjust the map settings including: When you are moving with no particular destination in mind, the Navigation Page shows you your moving direction and speed.
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The synchronization and quick reset capabilities make the Foretrex an extremely handy timer.
Garmin Foretrex 101 Manuals
To stop and start the timer: Waypoints Menu Page The Waypoints Menu Page provides access to your waypoints and allows you to delete and create waypoints. To open the Waypoints Menu Page: From the Main Menu Page, use the 2. To create a waypoint: Nearest Waypoints Page 3.
Entering a known location, then saving it as a Waypoint, works well for geocaching. To change the elevation: To start a Goto from the Review Waypoint Page: On the Review Waypoint Page, press the 2. You can also change the waypoint name, symbol, and elevation on this page. A graphic display of the moon phase is also displayed.
You may view Sun and Moon information for any date. The Foretrex uses this information to allow you to navigate using the saved track. For the best results, clear the track log before you start traveling because when the track log is full, the new track points overwrite the oldest track points. Tracks Menu Page Navigate: Select to begin navigation from the begin- ning point or the end point. The Foretrex stores 20 routes, each with up to waypoints. The Routes Menu Page provides access to your routes and allows you to delete and create routes.
You can then access each route displayed in majual own individual Route Page. From the Route Page you can edit the route, delete the route, and follow forretrex route. This is especially helpful after a vacation where the stored routes no longer apply to your location.
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You can add waypoints at any point along the route. You can also remove waypoints from the foretred. To insert a waypoint in the route: With the Route Page displaying, use the you would like to enter the new waypoint before. The Map Page displays your movement, the route line, and waypoints on the route.
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The hour option sets the Foretrex to display a hour cycle Military Time. To change the time format: To change the light timeout: Using garmln Foretrex with a paper map increases the navigation power of each.
To use a map in conjunction with the Foretrexyou must select the position format, map datum, map units, and north reference set in the Barmin Heading Page to match the map.
Every map uses a map datum which is usually listed in the title block of the map. You should only change the datum if you are using maps or charts that specify a different datum. Select the unit of measurement for angles to display in. Owner Information and reset the unit to the defaults. Refer to the following gqrmin. The temperature rating for the Fkretrex may exceed manyal usable range of some batteries.
Alkaline batteries can rupture at high temperatures. Extensive use of screen backlighting may reduce battery life. Bearing—The direction from your current location to a destination. Data Field Options Course—The direction from your starting location to a destination. Elevation—The altitude height above or below sea level. Final Dest Destination —The last waypoint on your route. Next ETE—The estimated time elapsed until you reach the next waypoint on the route.
Data Field Options Odometer—A running tally of distance travelled, based upon the distance between second- by-second gaemin readings. Operation of this device is subject to the following conditions: Software are valuable trade secrets of Garmin and that the Software in source code form remains a valuable trade secret of Garmin.
GARMIN FORETREX QUICK START MANUAL Pdf Download.
You agree not to decompile, disassemble, modify, reverse assemble, reverse engineer or reduce to human readable form the Software or any part thereof or create any derivative works based on the Soft- ware.
This Garmin product is warranted to be free from defects in materials or workmanship for one year from the date of purchase.
Within this foretres, Garmin will at its sole option repair or replace any components that fail in normal use. Such repairs or replacement will be made at no charge to the customer for parts or labor, provided that the customer shall be responsible for any transportation cost.
Garmin dealer for repairs. The Foretrex is sealed shut. Any attempt to open the case to change or modify the unit in any way will void your warranty and may result in permanent damage to the equip Do not mount the Foretrex over airbag panels For the latest free software updates excluding map data throughout the life of your Garmin products, visit the Garmin Web site at www.
Also See for Owner’s manual – 52 pages Quick start manual – 2 pages. Page of agrmin Go. Set Display Page 53 – Setup Menu: Page 56 – Setup Menu:
Polonaise in A flat major, Op. 53 incypit. Genre: Polonaise. Key: A-flat major. Opus/WN: Op. Creation date: Acc. to Paderewski: VIII/6. Acc. to Turło: Chopin, Frédéric Polonaise Op. 53 in A flat major: Heroic sheet music for Piano – Heroic Polonaise, byname of Polonaise in A-flat Major, Op. 53, solo piano piece by Polish French composer Frédéric Chopin, known and nicknamed for its.
The piece was probably begun in and was published the following year. More than most composers of his day, Chopin was a specialist. His instrument was the pianoand nearly all of his hundreds of compositions include it. Moreover, he focused on smaller-scale pieces, such as the Heroic Polonaise. Despite trends of the day and the persuasive words of friends, he never bothered with the larger forms, such as operas and symphonies.
In a letter, he wrote:.
But I just laugh under my breath and think to myself that one must start from small things. Fond of the culture of his birthplace, PolandChopin strove to evoke its spirit in his compositions, especially through reference to the aristocratic polonaise.
The Heroic Polonaise is an example of such a musical homage to his homeland. The second theme exhibits a more driving, percussive energy, and the lyrical third theme, by contrast, flows lightly and poignantly. The piece concludes with a glorious coda based on the first theme. The Heroic Polonaise is a work that argues strongly against the impression of Flag as a creator of gentle poetic miniatures.
Indeed, with this one short piece, which can be mjaor in about six or seven minutes, he fully exploited the spirit and power of the piano. We welcome makor improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval.
Unfortunately, our majod approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we’ll add it to the article. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. In a letter, he wrote: Rlat More in these related Britannica articles: Pianoa keyboard musical instrument having wire strings that sound when struck by felt-covered hammers operated from a keyboard.
The standard modern piano contains 88 keys and has a compass of seven full octaves plus a few keys. Polonaisein dance, chopi ceremonial dance that from the 17th to 19th century often opened court balls and other royal functions.
Chopin – Polonaise Op. 53 in A flat major : Heroic sheet music for Piano –
Dancethe movement of the body in a rhythmic way, usually to music and within a given space, for the purpose maojr expressing an idea or emotion, releasing energy, or simply taking delight in the movement itself.
Characterized by a step, slide, and step in 3 4 time, the waltz, with its turning, embracing couples, at first shocked polite society. It became the ballroom dance par excellence of the 19th…. Help us improve this article!
Heroic Polonaise | solo piano piece by Chopin |
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An Elsevier Author, Dr. Edward Goljan serves as Professor and Chair of Pathology at Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences. He is a renowned. There are good and bad reasons to add Goljan’s Rapid Review Pathology to And then I found it: Edward Goljan’s Rapid Review: Pathology. Whether you’re preparing for the USMLE Step 1, Step 2, or studying for course exams, Rapid Review Pathology, 5th Edition by acclaimed author Dr. Edward.
Edward Goljan – Wikipedia
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Jewish Magic and Superstition, by Joshua Trachtenberg, , full text etext at Rabbi Joshua Trachtenberg, in his defensive yet illuminating book, writing of the age-long reputation of jews as practitioners of black magic and. From Sefer Raziel, Amsterdam, i7 JOSHUA TRACHTENBERG JEWISH MAGIC AND SUPERSTITION A Study in Folk Religion Submitted in partial fulfillment.
Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Full text of ” Jewish Magic And Superstition: Between these two extremes—which have alike doomed Jews to the unhappiest of careers—a normal people, with all the faults and virtues of humanity, has pursued its normal course through history, however abnormal were the conditions against which it struggled.
The Jewish people did not cease to live and grow when the New Testament was written. The two thousand years since have seen a steady expansion and development of its inner life. New religious concepts were advanced, the old were elaborated, and always the effort has been to make these something more than concepts, to weave them into the pattern of daily life, so that the Jew might live his religion.
The rabbis sought to eradicate these practices, or at least to transmute their offensive features. But their efforts met with only indifferent success, and they were often obliged to accord the elements of this folk religion a grudging recognition and acceptance. Everywhere the common folk has existed on an intellectual and spiritual plane all its own, and it is only in the most recent centuries that true science and religion have made inroads into folk conceptions of the universe and brought them closer—if only a little—to what we call our modern, rationalist viewpoint.
In Jewish scholarship this phase of folk religion and folk science has been sorely neglected.
Jewish Magic And Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion
The material here presented is culled from the literature of Germanic Jewry described in the Note About the Sources —the Jewry of Germany, Northern France, England, Austria, Poland, which constituted culturally and historically a single community— from the eleventh century through the sixteenth.
However, the yearor thereabouts, has been selected as terminus ad quem, for during the succeeding century the so-called FOREWORD xx Lurianic Kabbalahemanating from Safed, introduced a variety of new mystical elements and emphases, and also at about this time the center of Jewish life was shifting toward the east, where it came increasingly under the influence of the Slavic cultures.
Until about the North European community remained fairly homogeneous, and Germanic. Andd should be noted that the Talmudic period is usually considered to have closed at about c.
And it may be added that the material here presented still possesses a certain contemporaneity. The present work, I trust, will help to fill the gap in our understanding of the medieval Jew.
The North produced Talmudists—and a burgeoning superstition and magic. The people were in daily contact, and the ideas and movements that swept Europe invaded the ghetto as well.
The Jews were an integral part of medieval Europe and their culture reflected, as in a measure jdwish influenced, all the forces operative in the general culture of the period. Jewish superstition and magic represent another view, from a hitherto unexploited angle, of medieval Europe.
Finally, I hope that the readers of this book will find in it some superstittion contribution to trachtenbegr knowledge of the history of thought—not of Jewish thought alone, but of human thought.
Professor Lynn Thorndike has made an exhaustive and rewarding study of the History of Magic and Experimental Science in medieval Europe, as one aspect of the history of thought. I may express the wish that this present book be regarded as a humble appendix to his work.
I am greatly indebted to Professors Salo W. My thanks are also due to Professor Alexander Marx and the staff of the Jewish Theological Seminary Library for their ready aid in utilizing the rich collection of that institution; to Mr. Louis Margolis, who so graciously assumed the heavy burden of preparing the index; and to the members of my congregation, Brith Shalom, of Easton, Pennsylvania, who provided me with the leisure to pursue this work, and ensured its publication.
To my wife belongs my deepest gratitude; she has a greater share in this book than I can acknowledge. The Legend Of Jewish Sorcery. The Truth Behind The Legend. The Powers Of Evil.
Man And The Demons. The Spirits Of The Dead.
Jewish Magic and Superstition | Joshua Trachtenberg, Moshe Idel
The Powers Of Good. The Bible In Magic. The War With The Spirits. Sefer Gematriaot On Gems. In no time and place, however, was his status—and his plight—so manifestly unique as in medieval Europe. But these alone do not tell the whole story; we must admit a further element into the psychological complex which determined the attitude of Christian toward Jew—an element which today has lost its force in the composition of anti-Semitism, but which in the Middle Ages loomed very large.
The allegiance to Satan, attributed to Jews with an insistence that almost drowned out its true implication, was not merely a form of invective or rhetoric. Satan was the ultimate source of magic, which operated only by his diabolic will and connivance.
Christian writers make it quite clear that this is the connection to which they refer. To cite but one instance: On that occasion a Jewish delegation bearing gifts and pledges of allegiance was driven from the palace, publicly accused of having come to cast their enchantments over the newly crowned king, and was set upon by the crowd; the outbreak spread rapidly through the city and the land, took more than half a year to spend itself and left in its wake a trail of horrible butcheries.
The striking feature of the Christian apprehension of Jewish sorcery is that it adhered not to certain specific Jews, who had aroused it by their actions, but rather to the entire people, en masse. Consequently every innocent Jewish act which by its strangeness laid itself open to suspicion was considered a diabolical device for working magic against Christians.
The custom of throwing a clod of earth behind one after a funeral brought a charge of sorcery in Paris, in the early years of the thirteenth century, which might have had dire consequences if a certain Rabbi Moses b. Yehiel had not succeeded in persuading the king of its utterly harmless character.
So onerous did these recurrent accusations become that the rabbis of the Middle Ages found it necessary—forced to this step, no doubt, by Jewish public opinion—to suspend some of these customs. But in other instances fear triumphed. The rabbis of the time were therefore unusually tolerant about violations of the prohibition to put out fires on the Sabbath and on the Day of Atonement.
Jews were stoned as sorcerers. But it needs little knowledge of human nature to believe that the very vice became a virtue when Christians themselves had need of a little expert magic on the side.
If Jews were magicians, their every act a charm, then their magic devices could aid as well as harm. It would be interesting to know how effective the cure was superstitlon R.
Isaac carries his anecdote no farther. The mezuzah a Biblical inscription attached to the doorpost was also an object of suspicion, and at the same time, of desire.
That it was regarded as a magical device by Christians we know, for a fifteenth-century tracntenberg admonished his readers to affix a mezuzah to their doors even when they occupied a house owned by a non-Jew, despite the fact sulerstition the landlord might accuse them of sorcery. Yet even Christians in high places were not averse to using these magical instruments themselves.
According to the popular view, demons and magic were often responsible for disease, and medicine was therefore the legitimate province spuerstition the sorcerer. But who would risk his life in the hands of an inferior Christian physician for the sake of theological doctrine when a powerful Jewish doctor-magician could be called in?
Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion – Joshua Trachtenberg – Google Books
Inwhen a Jewish doctor was given permission to practice in the city of Hall, in Swabia, the clergy epitomized the medieval clerical position in a public statement: But this pious preference was reserved for whole moments; when the issue was joined the ministrations of Satan were not rejected. We know of most of them only because their names have been preserved in Christian documents, recording their services to Christian rulers and prelates, their receipt or loss of privileges, or the occasional tragic reward of their efforts.
For if the patient risked his life when he called in a Jewish doctor, that doctor also risked his when he iewish up his sleeves and set to work. If his ministrations were successful he was a magician and might expect to be treated as such, with fear and respect, and active animosity; if he failed, he was a magician, and could expect to be called upon to pay promptly for his crime.
The first Jewish physician we hear of in the West was one Zedekiah, court physician to Emperor Charles the Bald toward the end of the ninth century, magician, of course, as well as—or because? He marked the type to the end: Not alone were physicians accused of poisoning their patients, but Jews in general were considered especially adept in this art.
In the Rhineland, inwe learn of Jews dealing in various drugs and salves, and since the exotic elements of the medieval pharmacopoeia were imported from the East, we may surmise that during this period such items were part of the regular stock in trade of Jewish merchants. We hear rather often of Jewish trade in drugs, throughout the Germanic lands. But drugs and poisons superstitiob almost synonymous terms to the medieval mind—and to the equation we may add sorcery as well. The same word was used in the Greek and in the Latin language for poison and sorcery, for a drug and a philter or magical potion.
The fact that men actually were poisoned supported the belief in the possibility of sorcery, and this belief in its turn stimulated excessive credulity in poisons which were thought to act at a trachenberg or after a long jewosh of time. For they import poisonous herbs into our realms. They know all that is known about medicine in Germany; they can give ans to a man of which he will trqchtenberg in an hour, or in ten or twenty years; they thoroughly understand this art.
In Church councils at Breslau and Vienna forbade Christians to purchase foodstuffs from Jews, tracchtenberg these were likely trachhtenberg have been poisoned—a sample of the kind of legislation this belief occasioned. Such charges and mass persecutions preceded, in fact, the Black Death, dating back, in France, to The role which the host, the superstitlon of Christ, played in popular superstition and magic throughout the Middle Ages was already evident jewlsh early as the fourth century; what more natural than that the Superztition, magicians and enemies of Christianity, should be charged with utilizing the wafer of the Eucharist in their own diabolic schemes?
But direct attack upon the body of Jesus was apparently too simple and gross a procedure to satisfy the crafty Jews, and they frequently resorted to a more recondite method of wreaking their venom upon the Christians and their Lord. Annually, if we are to believe the reports, they would fashion from wax an image of the founder of Christianity, and by their magic art transmit through this image to its model and his followers the pangs and tortures they visited upon it.
Christians did not hesitate to impute to their Jewish neighbors frequent resort to this technique, not only, as we have seen, with respect to the body of Christ, but of their Christian contemporaries as well. Infor example, jewisu Jews of Treves were accused of having made a waxen image of Bishop Eberhard, which, after having it baptized by trachtfnberg priest whom they had bribed, they burned on a Sabbath!
One of the most pervasive beliefs was in maagic great utility for medicinal and magical purposes of the elements of the human body. Medieval magic is full of recipes for putting to occult use human fat, human blood, entrails, hands, fingers; medieval medicine utilized as one of its chief medicaments the blood of man, preferably blood that had been freshly drawn, or mewish blood. There is on record at least one accusation against a Jew, dating from the thirteenth century, of despoiling a servant girl, whom he was said to have drugged, of some flesh which he intended to put to a magical or medicinal use.
This was superstotion motive which was believed to have prompted many assumed ritual murders. Suerstition records of the early accusations are meaningless unless viewed against the background of medieval superstition. A modern writer who has made a careful study of Christian magic and witchcraft, and who proves himself as credulous and superstition-ridden as the period he examines, expresses exactly the medieval view, which is his as well: The surprising thing is that the specific crimes of sorcery of which Jews stood accused were in the end so limited in nature.
Prior to the inception of the Inquisition in the thirteenth century, excesses attributed to sorcery had been punished by the secular authorities simply as criminal acts. When the Church undertook to stamp out sorcery it branded its mafic as devil-worshiping anti- Christians. We need but recall the famous trial in of the Marshal Gilles de Rais, aid and associate of Joan of Arc, at which he was accused and convicted of murdering several hundred children whose trachtsnberg and bodies he employed for magical purposes.
The Middle Ages inherited a tradition of Jewish sorcery from the ancient world. A host of popular magical works was attributed to Solomon and other fabled Jewish masters.
Jews, consequently, remained an unknown and mysterious folk. Their very strangeness was a suspicious element, and the weirdest legends about them found ready currency among a people given to an easy credulity and the crassest superstition. Nor did the mistrust and animosity which the entire background of medieval Christendom fostered against the Jews serve to lessen the effect of their strangeness.
The accusations came in time to be part of a pattern which repeated itself ad infinitum. But if more varied charges did not enter the record, we may be certain that they existed in the mind of the people.
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Sto tysiecy kartek Anna Czerwinska-Rydel. Przepraszam czy jestes czarownica?
Co sie dzieje, kiedy spisz? Jak zdobyc Nagrode Nobla? Bajki filozoficzne Michel Piquemal. Historia sztuki Sylvain Coissard. Krolewna i Goblin George MacDonald. Kotek, ktory merdal ogonem Michell Pawlak.
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Metode ini lebih banyak digunakan dalam analisa jika dibandingkan dengan metode lain. Alasan dipilihnya metode ini karena perbandingan stoikometri yang sederhana pelaksanannya praktis dan tidak benyak masalah dan mudah. Dilakukan percobaan ini untuk menentukan kadar zat-zat oksidator secara langsung, seperti yang kadar terdapat dalam serbuk vitamin C. Titrasi tidak aalah iodometri dilakukan terhadap zat-zat oksidator berupa garam-garam besi III dan tembaga sulfat dimana zat-zat oksidator ini direduksi dahulu dengan kalium iodida dan iodin dalam jumlah yang setara dan ditentukan kembali dengan larutan natrium tiosulfat baku.
Keterbatasan xdalah ini adalah bahwa metode titrimetri kurang spesifik. Titrasi iodometri digunakan untuk menentukan kadar dari zat-zat uji yang bersifat reduktor dengan titrasi langsung. Sedangkan untuk titrasi iodimetri adalah kebalikannya Dalam bidang farmasi metode ini digunakan untuk menentukan kadar zat-zat yang mengandung oksidator misalnya Cl2, Fe IIICu II dan sebagainya, sehingga mengetahui kadar suatu zat berarti mengetahui mutu dan kualitasnya.
Istilah oksidasi mengacu pada setiap perubahan ikdometri dimana terjadi kenaikan bilangan oksidasi, sedangkan reduksi digunakan untuk setiap penurunan bilangan oksidasi. Berarti proses oksidasi disertai hilangnya elektron sedangkan reduksi memperoleh elektron.
Oksidator adalah senyawa di mana atom yang terkandung mengalami penurunan bilangan oksidasi. Sebaliknya pada reduktor, atom yang terkandung mengalami kenaikan bilangan oksidasi. Oksidasi-reduksi harus selalu berlangsung bersama dan saling menkompensasi satu sama lain.
Istilah oksidator reduktor mengacu kepada suatu senyawa, tidak kepada atomnya saja Khopkar, Sedangkan iodimetri merupakan cara titrasi redoks yang menggunakan larutan iodium sebagai pentiter. Iodometri disebut juga metode titrasi tak langsung yang berkenaan dengan titrasi dari iod yang dibebaskan dalam reaksi kimia.
Sedangkan iodimetri merupakan metode titrasi langsung yang mengacu pada titrasi dengan suatu larutan iod standar. Diantara sekian banyak contoh teknik atau cara dalam analisis kuantitatif terdapat dua cara melakukan analisis dengan menggunakan senyawa pereduksi iodium yaitu secara langsung dan tidak langsung. Oodometri langsung disebut iodimetri digunakan larutan iodium untuk mengoksidasi reduktor-reduktor yang dapat dioksidasi secara kuantitatif pada titik ekivalennya.
Namun, metode iodimetri ini jarang dilakukan mengingat iodium sendiri merupakan oksidator yang lemah. Sedangkan cara tidak 3 langsung disebut iodometri oksidator yang dianalisis kemudian direaksikan dengan ion iodida berlebih dalam keadaan yang sesuai yang selanjutnya iodium dibebaskan secara kuantitatif dan dititrasi dengan larutan natrium thiosilfat standar atau asam arsenit. Dalam proses analitik, iodium digunakan sebagai pereaksi oksidasi iodimetri dan ion iodida digunakan sebagai pereaksi reduksi iodometri.
Relatif beberapa zat merupakan pereaksi reduksi yang cukup kuat untuk dititrasi secara langsung dengan iodium. Maka jumlah penentuan iodimetrik adalah sedikit. Akan tetapi banyak pereaksi oksidasi cukup kuat untuk bereaksi sempurna dengan ion iodida, dan ada banyak penggunaan proses iodometrik. Suatu kelebihan ion iodida ditambahkan kepada pereaksi oksidasi yang ditentukan, dengan pembebasan iodium, yang kemudian dititrasi dengan larutan natrium tiosulfat.
Iodometr antara iodium dan tiosulfat berlangsung secara sempurna Underwood, Dari pengertian diatas maka titrasi iodometri dapat dikategorikan sebagai titrasi kembali. Iodida adalah reduktor lemah dan dengan mudah akan teroksidasi jika direaksikan dengan oksidator kuat. Iodida tidak dipakai sebagai titran, hal ini ioxometri karena faktor kecepatan reaksi dan kurangnya jenis indikator yang dapat dipakai untuk iodida. Oleh sebab itu titrasi kembali merupakan proses titrasi yang sangat idometri untuk titrasi yang melibatkan iodida.
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Senyawa iodida umumnya KI ditambahkan secara berlebih pada larutan oksidator sehingga terbentuk I2. I2 yang terbentuk adalah ekuivalen dengan jumlah oksidator yang akan ditentukan. Jumlah I2 ditentukan dengan menitrasi I2 dengan larutan standar tiosulfat umumnya yang dipakai adalah Na 2S2O3 dengan indikator 4 amilum, jadi perubahan warnanya dari biru tua kompleks amilum-I2 sampai warna ini tepat hilang.
Reaksi yang terjadi pada titrasi iodometri untuk penentuan iodat adalah sebagai berikut: Dalam kebanyakan titrasi langsung dengan iod iodimetridigunakan suatu larutan iod dalam kalium iodida, dan karena itu spesi reaktifnya adalah ion tri-iodida, I Untuk tepatnya, semua persamaan yang melibatkan reaksireaksi iod seharusnya ditulis dengan I3- dan bukan dengan I2, misalnya: Larutan-larutan iodin standar dapat dibuat melalui penimbangan langsung iodin murni dan pengenceran dalam labu volumetrik.
Iodin akan dimurnikan oleh sublimasi dan ditambahkan ke dalam larutan KI yang konsentrasinya diketahui yang ditimbang secara akurat sebelum dan sesudah penambahan iodin. Namun demikian, biasanya larutan tersebut distandarisasi terhadap larutan standar primer seperti As2O3.
Kekuatan reduksi dari HAsO2 tergantung pada pH, seperti yang ditunjukkan oleh persamaan di bawah: Namun iodometfi, jika konsentrasi ion hidrogen diturunkan, reaksi dipaksa bergeser ke kanan sehingga bisa digunakan untuk titrasi.
Biasanya larutannya disangga pada pH sedikit ioodometri 8 menggunakan natrium bikarbonat Underwood, Kelemahan larutan iod adalah: Larutan iod adalah oksidator lemah, tak stabil karena mudah menguap. Dapat mengoksidasi karet, gabus dan zat-zat organik lainnya.
Dipengaruhi oleh udara dengan reaksi sebgai berikut: Bila 1 tetes larutan I2 0,1 N dimasukkan kedalam ml aquadest akan memberikan warna kuning muda, sehingga dapat dikatakan bahwa dalam suatu larutan yang tidak berwarna I2 dapat berfungsi adlaah indikator. Warna dari larutan iodin 0,1 N cukup intens sehingga iodin dapat bertindak sebagai indikator bagi dirinya sendiri. Iodin juga memberikan warna ungu atau violet yang intens untuk zat-zat pelarut seperti karbon tetraklorida dan kloroform dan terkadang kondisi ini digunakan untuk mendeteksi titik akhir titrasi.
Namun iodoometri, suatu larutan penyebaran koloidal dari kanji lebih umum digunakan, karena warna biru gelap dari kompleks iodin-kanji iodomstri sebagai tes yang sensitif untuk iodin. Underwood, Komponen utama kanji yaitu amilosa dan amilopektin.
Amilosa memiliki rantai lurus dan memberikan warna biru jika bereaksi dengan iodium. Amilopektin memiliki rantai bercabang dan memberikan warna merah violet jika bereaksi dengan iodium.
Metode Titrasi Iodometri Langsung
Keuntungan penggunaan kanji adalah harganya murah, sedangkan kerugiannya adalah tidak mudah larut dalam air dingin, tidak stabil pada suspensi dengan air, karenanya dalam proses pembuatannya harus dibantu dengan pemanasan. Penambahan indikator kanji sebaiknya dilakukan pada saat medekati titik akhir titrasi karena iod dengan kanji membentuk kompleks yang berwarna biru yang tidak larut dalam air dingin sehingga dikhawatirkan mengganggu penetapan titik akhir titrasi.
Karena adanya kelemahan ini, adalzh pemakaian kanji natrium glukonat yang mana indikator ini tidak higroskopis; cepat larut dan stabil dalam penyimpanan; tidak membentuk kompleks yang tidak larut dengan iodium sehingga boleh ditambahkan pada awal titrasi dan titik akhir jelas; reprodusibel dan tidak tiba-tiba.
Natrium tiosulfat biasanya dibeli sebagai pentahidrat, Na2S2O3. Larutan-larutan ioodmetri tidak stabil dalam jangka waktu lama, sehingga boraks atau natrium karbonat sering ditambahkan sebagai bahan pengawet. Iodin mengoksidasi tiosulfat menjadi ion tetrationat: Berat ekivalen dari Na2S2O3. Jika pH dari larutan diatas 9, tiosulfat teroksidasi secara parsial menjadi sulfat: Banyak agen pengoksidasi kuat, seperti garam permanganat, garam dikromat, dan garam serium IVmengoksidasi tiosulfat menjadi sulfat, namun reaksinya tidak kuantitatif.
Reaksi bromat berjalan lebih lambat, namun kecepatannya dapat ditingkatkan dengan menaikkan konsentrasi ion hidrogen. Biasanya sejumlah kecil ammonium molibdat ditambahkan sebagai katalis. Kerugian utama dari kedua garam ini sebagai standar primer adalah berat ekivalnnya yang kecil.
Dalam setiap kasus berat ekivalen adalah seperenam dari berat molekular, dimana berat ekivalen KIO 3 adalah 35,67 dan KBrO3 adalah 27, Untuk menghindari kesalahan yang besar dalam menimbang, petunjuk-petunjuk biasa mensyaratkan penimbangan sebuah sampel yang besar, pengenceran di dalam labu volumetrik dan menarik 10 mundur alikuot. Garam kalium asam iodat, KIO 3. HIO3 dapat digunakan sebagai standar primer namun iodoetri ekivalnnya juga kecil, seperduabelas dari berat molekularnya, 32, Underwood, Adapun cara standarisasi larutan tiosulfat dengan kalium iodat dilakukan dengan cara sebagai berikut: Tambahkan 2 gram kalium iodida yang bebas iodat dan 5 ml HCl pekat dalam erlenmeyer bertutup.
Iodium yang dibebaskan dititrasi dengan natrium tiosulfat yang akan dibakukan sambil terus dikocok.
Bila larutan menjadi kuning pucat tambah ml air dan 3 ml larutan kanji. Titrasi dilanjutkan sampai warna biru tepat hilang tidak berwarna. Pada pembakuan di atas reaksi yang terjadi adalah sebagai berikut: Senyawa ini memiliki berat ekivalen yang cukup tinggi, tidak higroskopik, padat serta larutannya stabil.
Iodometri Titrasi Vitamin c
Rekasi dengan iodida dilakukan dalam 0,2 M sampai 0,4 Iodomrtri asam dan selesai dalam 5 sampai 10 menit. Untuk mendapatkan 11 hasil terbaik, tambahkan sepotong kecil natrium bikarbonat atau es kering ke dalam labu titrasi.
Karbon dioksida yang dihasilkan akan menggeser tempat udara. Iodin ditahan oleh adsorpsi pada permukaan oleh endapan tembaga I iodida dan harus dipindahkan untuk mendapatkan hasil yang benar. Kalium tiosianat biasanya ditambahkan sesaat sebelum titik akhir tercapai untuk menyingkirkan iodin yang diadsorpsi. Penentuan iodometrik tembaga banyak digunakan baik untuk bijih maupun paduannya.
Metode ini memberikan hasil yang sempurna dan lebih cepat daripada penentuan elektrolitik tembaga. Metoda klasik dari Winkler adalah sebuah metoda sensitif ntuk menentukan oksigen yang dilarutkan dalam air. Ke dalam sampel air ditambahkan garam mangan IInatrium iodida dan natrium hidroksida berlebih. Larutannya kemudian diasamkan, dan Mn OH 3 mengoksidasi iodida menjadi iodin, yang 12 kemudian di titrasi dengan larutan standar dari natrium tiosulfat.
Titrasi dilakukan di dalam sebuah penyangga bikarbonat dengan pH sekitar 8. Dalam penentuan timah dan sulfit, larutan yang sedang dititrasi harus dilindungi dari oksidasi oleh udara.
La Meningitis Bacteriana Aguda (MBA) de adquisición comunitaria es una .. En dicho contexto se recomienda usar dexametasona 10 mg cada 6 hrs. iv. A pesar del uso de la dexametasona, la mortalidad de la meningitis bacteriana aguda (MBA) continúa siendo elevada en los casos que precisan ingreso en UCI . Dexametasona en meningitis bacteriana aguda del niño: Un análisis métrico Translated title: Dexamethasone in acute bacterial meningitis in children: a meta- .
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Acute bacterial meningitis definition of acute bacterial meningitis by Medical dictionary https: Management Antibiotics and dexamethasone. ABM dxeametasona spinal pachymeningitis bacterial meningitis C-reactive protein test glucose ratio Leyden spinal peripachymeningitis meningitic meningitis.
References in periodicals archive? Epidemiology, diagnosis, and antimicrobial treatment of acute bacterial meningitis.
Dexametasona en meningitis bacteriana aguda del niño: Un análisis métrico – ScienceOpen
Concordance of cerebrospinal fluid latex particle agglutination test with CSF and blood culture among children with acute bacterial meningitis. Demographics of children with acute bacterial meningitis.
Acute bacterial meningitis in children presenting to The Children’s Hospital Lahore before and after pneumococcal vaccine in Pakistan National Immunization Program; A comparison.
Both our patients presented with gastrointestinal manifestations of Strongyloides hyperinfection but bacteriaana symptoms were subtle and overshadowed by the features of acute bacterial meningitis. Enterococcal meningitis in association with Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome.
acute bacterial meningitis
Additional markers that may assist in the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis exist, but their diagnostic role in the current guidelines is modest. Diagnostic challenges with acellular bacterial meningitis.
Clinical features and independent prognostic factors for acute bacterial meningitis in adults. Prognostic indicators in bacterial meningitis: Meningitis registry of hospitalized cases in children: Prevalence of gram-negative pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility in bacterial meningitis in pediatric cases.
Acute bacterial meningitis | definition of acute bacterial meningitis by Medical dictionary
Risk factors analysis ahuda early fatality in children with acute bacterial meningitis. Meningitis negativa a pruebas antigenicas y de cultivo en ninos guatemaltecos. She died, aged 37, from acute bacterial meningitis in Long term sequelae of childhood acute bacterial meningitis in a developing country. Do corticosteroids prevent hearing loss in pediatric bacterial meningitis?
An analysis of the evidence. Efficacy of Dexamethasone as a Complementary Therapy fexametasona Acute Bacterial Meningitis Due to Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults Eficacia de la dexametasona como terapia complementaria, en meningitis bacteriana aguda por Streptococcus pneumoniae, en adultos. Start dexamethasone promptly for meningitis. School confirms pupil of 14 has meningitis.
Alpinia nutansthe shellfloweror dwarf cardamomis a Southeast Asian plant of the ginger family Zingiberaceaeand is a medicinal plant used to control hypertensionas diuretic antifungal and antiulcer.
Its flowers have a porcelain look, are shell-like and bloom prolifically on a cm stalk. The flower’s single fertile stamen has a massive anther.
The globose white stigma of the pistil extends beyond the tip of the anther. The speciosz of Alpinia nutans is evergreen in areas that do not have a hard freeze. It has a very distinctive cardamom fragrance when brushed or rubbed, but this is not the plant that produces the spice by that name. The rhizome oil of Alpinia speciosa contains some fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms, which are less common in nature than fatty acids with even numbers of carbon alipnia. The major one alpinla pentadecanoic acid C, Among the fatty acids containing even number of carbon atoms, the main constituents are linolenic acid C The total saturated fatty acids constitute Alpinia nutans is used in traditional medicine as diuretic, antihypertensiveantifungal, and antiulcer.
However, it was found to have no effect on diuresis. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Alpinia nutans Scientific classification Kingdom: This section with questionable factual accuracy needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources.
Please review the contents of the spceiosa and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz.
Alpinia speciosa – definition of Alpinia speciosa by The Free Dictionary
SCHUM on the porphyrin photooxidative reaction”. Journal of the Indian Chemical Society.
J Agric Food Chem. Retrieved from ” https: Alpinia Flora of Brazil Zingiberales stubs. Articles with ‘species’ microformats Articles needing additional medical references from February All articles needing additional references Articles requiring reliable medical sources Commons category link is on Wikidata Articles with Portuguese-language external links Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms All stub articles. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies.
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